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기준금리 영어로 in Korean – Understanding South Korea’s Base Interest Rate

The base interest rate in South Korea, also known as 기준금리 (gi-jeon-geum-ri) in Korean, is a key factor in the country’s economic performance. It is determined by the Bank of Korea, the country’s central bank, and is used to influence the cost and availability of credit in the financial system. In this article, we’ll explore what 기준금리 영어로 in Korean means and its significance for the South Korean economy.

What is 기준금리 in Korean?

In English, 기준금리 is translated as “base interest rate” or “policy rate”. It is the interest rate at which the central bank lends money to commercial banks in South Korea. The central bank uses this rate to control the supply of money in the economy and to influence borrowing and spending activities.

During an economic downturn, the central bank may lower 기준금리 in Korean to encourage borrowing and spending. This in turn can stimulate economic activity, increase consumer spending and investment, and potentially lead to higher employment rates. Conversely, a rising 기준금리 can cool down an overheating economy by decreasing borrowing and spending, reducing inflation, and ultimately driving down prices.

The Bank of Korea sets the 기준금리 in Korean at its Monetary Policy Committee Meetings. These meetings take place eight times a year, and there are usually two committee meetings held consecutively in a row. This is to allow the central bank to assess the effectiveness of its policies and to make any necessary adjustments.

During each Monetary Policy Committee Meeting, the central bank’s policymakers review economic data, such as inflation, consumer spending, and unemployment rates, as well as global economic conditions and trends. Based on this information, they make a decision on whether to increase, decrease, or maintain the 기준금리.

The central bank may also adjust the 기준금리 outside of the regular monetary policy meetings if there is an urgent need to do so, such as in response to a major economic crisis or event.

The Bank of Korea also uses several other monetary policy tools to achieve its economic goals, including open market operations, which involve buying or selling government bonds to influence the supply of money, and reserve requirement ratios, which determine the minimum amount of reserves that commercial banks must hold.

How does 기준금리 change during an economic downturn?

During an economic downturn or recession, the Bank of Korea typically lowers the 기준금리 in Korean to encourage borrowing and investment. This is aimed at stimulating economic growth, boosting employment, and increasing consumer spending.

For example, during the financial crisis of 2008, the Bank of Korea lowered the 기준금리 from 5.25% to a record-low of 2.00% over the course of a year. This led to increased borrowing and spending, and helped South Korea weather the global recession relatively well.

More recently, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the central bank lowered 기준금리 to a record-low of 0.50% in a series of emergency rate cuts. This was aimed at supporting businesses and stabilizing the economy during a time of significant uncertainty and disruption.

However, the central bank may only lower 기준금리 by a certain amount before it becomes ineffective, as commercial banks may not pass on the rate cut to borrowers or may not have the capacity to lend. Additionally, if interest rates are already low, the central bank may not be able to lower them much further.

On the other hand, if the economy is overheating and inflation is rising, the Bank of Korea may increase the 기준금리 in Korean to discourage borrowing and spending. This can help to cool down the economy, reduce inflation, and curb rising prices.

What impact does 기준금리 have on the economy?

The 기준금리 has a significant impact on the South Korean economy, as it influences borrowing costs and availability, consumer spending, and overall economic growth.

When the 기준금리 in Korean is low, it becomes cheaper and easier for businesses and consumers to borrow money. This can lead to increased spending, investment, and economic growth. It can also make it more attractive for investors to put their money into the country, as they can earn a higher return on their investments.

Conversely, when the 기준금리 is high, borrowing becomes more expensive and less accessible. This can discourage investment and spending, slow down economic growth, and drive down consumer confidence and sentiment. Higher interest rates can also strengthen the value of the country’s currency, making exports more expensive and potentially hurting the competitiveness of exports-driven industries.

The impact of the 기준금리 can vary depending on the specific economic conditions and activities. For example, when the housing market is booming, a reduction in the 기준금리 may lead to excessive borrowing and a housing bubble. Similarly, when the economy is facing structural problems, such as high levels of debt or low productivity, lower interest rates may not have a significant impact on economic growth.

How does Korea’s base interest rate compare to other countries?

The 기준금리 in Korean is not unique to South Korea, as many countries have their own base interest rates or policy rates. However, the level and trajectory of the rate can differ significantly between countries.

As of April 2021, South Korea’s 기준금리 stands at 0.50%, which is among the lowest in the world. This is reflective of the country’s relatively low inflation and slow economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Other countries may have much higher 기준금리 or may have experienced more volatility in their interest rate changes. For example, Brazil’s base interest rate is currently at 2.75%, while Turkey’s is at 19.00%. The United States, another major economy, has a base interest rate of 0.25%.

In recent years, many central banks around the world have lowered their base interest rates in response to global economic conditions, such as low inflation and weak economic growth. This can lead to international competitiveness as countries compete to depreciate their exchange rates and encourage exports.

FAQs

What is 기준금리 영어로?

기준금리 in Korean means “base interest rate” or “policy rate” in English.

Who sets the 기준금리 in Korean?

The 기준금리 in Korean is determined by the Bank of Korea, the country’s central bank. The rate is set by the central bank’s Monetary Policy Committee at their regular meetings.

How does the 기준금리 affect the economy?

The 기준금리 can influence borrowing and lending activity, consumer spending, investment, and overall economic growth. A lower 기준금리 can stimulate economic activity, while a higher 기준금리 can slow it down and curb inflation. The impact of the rate can vary depending on the specific economic conditions and activities.

How does the 기준금리 compare to other countries?

The level and trajectory of the 기준금리 can vary significantly between countries. As of April 2021, South Korea’s 기준금리 stands at 0.50%, which is among the lowest in the world. Other countries may have much higher or more volatile base interest rates.

Can the 기준금리 be adjusted outside of regular Monetary Policy Committee meetings?

The Bank of Korea may adjust the 기준금리 outside of regular meetings if there is an urgent need to do so, such as in response to a major economic crisis or event.

What other monetary policy tools does the Bank of Korea use?

In addition to adjusting the 기준금리, the Bank of Korea also uses other monetary policy tools, such as open market operations and reserve requirement ratios, to influence the supply of money and achieve its economic goals.

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